Analysis of the most popular polystyrene foam tabl

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An analysis of the concept of circular economy of polystyrene foam tableware (VII) Japan

Japan's management of PSP tableware, which was also considered to be banned in the 1980s, has tended to strengthen recycling and recycling since the 1990s, and in 1991, the Japanese PSP industry (including raw materials and processing manufacturers) established the PS (including PSP) renewable resources Recycling Association (jepsra). Be responsible for organizing the recycling and disposal of packaging materials for household appliances, CA machines, fish boxes, fruit and vegetable boxes, food containers and other wastes used in the fresh food market, and entrust the packaging material treatment plant set up by shuishuihuacheng Industry Co., Ltd. to carry out the final treatment, which can be processed into mortar mixtures, soil modifiers or recycled materials, and processed into other spring products. In 2001, the proportion of EPS recovery: regenerative granulation 37.8%, thermal energy 22.3%, a total of 60.1%, reaching the target of 86% South Korea

South Korea pays more attention to the management and recycling of plastic waste, and has successively formulated a number of regulations: the synthetic resin waste treatment business law enacted in 1979, the waste management law enacted in 1991, the promotion of resource conservation and reuse law enacted in 1992, and the agreement on commodity packaging methods and packaging material standards to prevent the production of packaging waste, Article 5 of the agreement stipulates that it is prohibited to use non biodegradable packaging materials, PSP as shockproof packaging materials for toys, gifts, etc., and PSP laminated materials and coating materials as packaging materials; The law on promoting resource conservation and reuse stipulates that EPS and PSP packaging waste must be stored and recycled by classification. The EPS recovery rate is required to reach 50% for large enterprises and 30% for small and medium-sized enterprises. The law was amended in 2002, mainly to increase taxes and compulsory recycling: producers and importers of products, materials and packaging containers that are not easy to recycle are taxed, and they are required to forcibly recycle their main products. The above taxable goods include PSP instant noodles bowls, agricultural trays, seafood, livestock supplies and fast food boxes

in 2001, the total consumption of EPS in South Korea was 228165 tons, the waste generation was 20963 tons, the recovery was 27252 tons, and the recovery rate was 53.5%

South Korea imposed a mandatory recovery on general PSP tableware, but the packaging used for such as cups, bowls, noodles and export products was not limited, and the consumption in 2000 was 35kt Taiwan, China province of China

in 1989, PSP manufacturers in Taiwan, China province of China established a PSP Products Committee under the Taiwan plastic products industry trade union to plan various recycling work. In 1990, 16 PSP sheet manufacturers jointly established the "Green Foundation", which is mainly responsible for the recycling and treatment of PSP disposable tableware and the research and development of recycling technology

in 1991, Taiwan Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau formulated the waste disposal law, which included PSP in the control items and required to achieve a certain recovery rate. In 1992, the "key points for prohibiting the use of PSP food packaging containers in government institutions and schools" was formulated. With the expansion of recycling business, this regulation was lifted in 1994. And modify it as recycling to standardize its use conditions

in 1991, Taiwan Environmental Protection Bureau formulated the waste disposal law, which included PSP tableware in the control items and required a certain percentage of recovery rate after use. In 1992, the regulation of "key points for prohibiting the use of PSP food packaging in government institutions and schools" was formulated. With the smooth development of recycling business, the regulation was lifted in 1994 and revised to regulate its use conditions by recycling

the PSP recycling work in Taiwan has been improved continuously after more than 10 years of recycling since 1992, and the relevant recycling system has been established. Since 1997, the Taiwan government has incorporated the recycling work initiated by the private sector into the official recycling system, that is, the "green conservation foundation" has been transferred to the "resource recovery management fund management committee" under the Environmental Protection Bureau, in order to improve the recycling efficiency and more orderly management. Nearly 29.1kt of PSP waste tableware was recycled in 2001

since the 1990s, Taiwan has been calling for the prohibition of PSP. Coupled with the increase of recycling and regeneration costs, in 1997, Taiwan's Environmental Protection Bureau amended the content of the waste disposal law, adding the provisions of "prohibiting or restricting the use of materials or products that are easy to cause serious pollution". The bill has been passed. At present, the environmental protection agency implements the control of PSP tableware in stages. The first phase was first implemented in various organs and schools in April 2003, and the second phase was extended to all business places and supermarkets on January 1, 2004. The regulation of PSP in the above-mentioned act is only a restriction and condition, not a complete prohibition. Nevertheless, it has not yet been seriously implemented China

from 1997 to 1998, the State Environmental Protection Administration issued relevant regulations to strengthen the recycling of plastic packaging waste, but they were not implemented due to various reasons. In 1999, the former State Economic and Trade Commission issued Order No. 6, requiring the elimination of PSP disposable plastic tableware by the end of 2000. Around this time, Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Chongqing, Wuhan, Xi'an and more than a dozen other cities have also issued bans and implementation schedules, but for various reasons. It is difficult to implement the policy. So far, PSP tableware is still everywhere in many urban markets. To make the ban equal to the white ban. Among many cities, Shanghai's approach is pragmatic and effective. Based on the mature experience of foreign countries and the specific situation of Shanghai, the people's Government of Shanghai issued Order No. 84 in 2000, which proposed the principle of "source control, recycling, gradual prohibition and encouraging substitution" for the management of disposable plastic lunch boxes, and began to implement the "Interim Measures for the unusable space of plastic lunch boxes within the distance from the box wall (100 ~ 150mm) at a time". According to the environmental management principle of who pollutes and who is responsible, The management department collects 3 cents from each manufacturer as the labor fee, transportation, management and law enforcement fee and waste lunch box treatment fee (1 cent each), collectively referred to as the "3 cents project" in Shanghai. At present, the recovery rate in Shanghai has reached 60%. Over the past five years, a total of 900million disposable plastic lunch boxes, about 5785 tons, have been collected, with remarkable results

in order to ensure recycling, Shanghai has established an effective recycling network, and Kunshan baolvyuan recycling treatment Co., Ltd. was established by 6 PSP tableware manufacturers in Shanghai and Kunshan with a joint fund of 4million yuan. It and Putuo District Waste Comprehensive Utilization Center are responsible for the recycling of PSP lunch boxes in Shanghai. At present, the selling price of recycled raw materials per ton has also increased to more than 3000 yuan with the sharp rise of the price of new materials, but it is only about 1/3 of that of new materials. Recycled materials are mainly used to process into various building materials, CD packaging shells, air conditioning filtration, raincoat buttons, cultural appliances, etc. generally due to the high hardness of bars, there has been a situation that supply exceeds demand

Beijing is one of the first cities to formulate and implement regulations on the recycling of PSP tableware. As early as 1997, the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau and the Administration for Industry and Commerce jointly issued the notice on the recycling of discarded disposable plastic lunch boxes, and required that the recycling rate must reach 30% in 1998, 50% in 1999 and 60% in 2000

in order to cooperate with the implementation of the government decree, six PSP tableware manufacturers in Beijing jointly organized "Beijing Fusheng environmental protection technology company" in 1997 and formulated the corresponding recycling plan. Eight recycling stations were first set up in Beijing. After more than four years of operation and continuous improvement, and at the same time, they were reduced to three recycling stations as required by the implementation of the policy. In addition, the recovery cost is also based on the principle of "Whoever pollutes, who governs", and all costs related to the recovery work are fully borne by the production enterprise

in order to improve the recycling capacity of PSP, six PSP tableware enterprises invested 730000 US dollars in 1999, "Beijing Baolv environmental protection plastic recycling treatment Co., Ltd. was established, and large-scale recycling treatment equipment was introduced from Taiwan. At the same time, a sewage treatment system was added to make the discharged water meet the standard requirements. The monthly treatment capacity of the device reached about 150~180 tons, and the yield of recycled pellets was more than 60%. Recycled pellets were mainly used to manufacture plastic flower boxes, cultural and household appliances, and plastic building materials." For more than three years from 1998 to 2001, the recycling work has been carried out smoothly through the joint cooperation of the government and enterprises. The recycling system has gradually become systematic, standardized and large-scale. A total of more than 4200 tons of recycled materials have been produced, and the recovery rate has stabilized at about 60%. The quality of recycled pellets is relatively stable, the price is moderate, and the sales effect is normal

in 1999, the Beijing Municipal People's government issued Order No. 25 "Beijing measures for the administration of restrictions on the sale and use of plastic bags and disposable tableware", requiring that the sale and use of disposable foaming tableware be prohibited in railway stations, long-distance bus stations, civilized scenic spots in the capital, airports, restaurants and other occasions...

in recent years, due to the great contradiction between Beijing's recycling and restriction policies and National Order No. 6, The more effective recycling work that has been carried out for many years is no longer supported by the government, but is basically at a standstill. Relevant recycling equipment and plants are idle, and workers are laid off

from the above domestic and foreign laws and regulations on PSP tableware and the analysis of the recycling control characteristics and utilization situation, we can see the following trends and Enlightenment:

(1) after the implementation of the laws and regulations on the prohibition of PSP tableware at home and abroad, it is found that there are many problems, the implementation is difficult, and it can not solve the environmental contradictions well, so some are lifted, some are modified, limited or partially disabled, Others are not observed because they do not conform to the law of market development, and become a dead letter, losing credibility and binding force

(2) although the recycling of PSP tableware is difficult in practice, from the experience of Shanghai and Beijing, as long as we follow the concept of "circular economy", strengthen guidance and cooperation in all aspects, especially according to the principle of "who pollutes, who governs", most PSP tableware manufacturers voluntarily pay pollution control fees. PSP tableware can be recycled and reused, and can obtain better economic and social benefits. And only by strengthening the recycling of PSP tableware can we enhance its market vitality and competitiveness

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